Metal Casting Development

Metal Casting Development

China, India, Egypt, Greece and Rome started to cast weapons,sacrificial vessels, art works and family utensils in ancient times. Early castings were made of gold, silver, copper and their alloys.Bronze age is a glorious page in the history of human civilization; In the future, cast iron was appeared. China has been widely used in iron casting since the warring states period, and the technology has a long history. Metal casting metallurgy and casting are complementary processes, and the word “metallurgy” in ancient China reflects this fact. Although the later casting process has developed into a relatively independent branch discipline in the mechanical manufacturing process, it is still inseparable from the metallurgical process.

Cast iron has a long history, but metal casting development is slow. It did not change until 1722, when the “cupola” was created, and the microscopes were used to study the structure and fracture of cast iron. In 1734, Svedenberg’s “Deferro” came out with a preliminary theoretical understanding of the cast iron process. From 1765 to 1785, with the advent of the steam engine, since the 1760 s cast iron is widely used in machinery manufacturing, transportation departments also use cast tracks, for waterworks in Paris in 1788 cast iron pipe produced with 60 kilometers of water flow. The increase of iron demand has promoted the technological advancement and theoretical research of cast iron.

The melting point of the cast steel is high, and the composition control (such as deoxygenation, etc.) is complicated. It was not until 1740 that the crucible process was made of steel and the development process began.

The aluminum alloy was invented in 1886. By the early 20th century, the foundry industry of aluminum and its alloys had developed rapidly and became the first place in nonferrous metal casting. However, the proportion of traditional copper alloy castings has decreased gradually.

A metal casting method adapted to various needs has been developed to economically produce complex shapes and various sizes of castings.

The casting properties of metals include: the ability of liquid metal to be filled with molten metal; The contraction tendency is large from liquid to solid volume, easy to produce shrinkage cavity and other defects, and the linear size shrinkage is large, which affects the final dimension precision of the casting. In the process of casting, some metals and alloys are prone to crack and segregation tendency.

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